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How Do You Tell If You Are a Dual Citizen?

How many people in Hong Kong hold dual nationality? The answer is 350,000, which includes up to 20 percent of the Legislative Council members. In addition, Hong Kong is home to many dual nationals of both Chinese and foreign nationalities. Several other countries also recognize dual nationality. In addition, dual citizenship is common in Hong Kong, with up to a quarter of residents holding a British National (Overseas) passport.


Almost three-quarters of the 350,000 foreign-passport-holding people in Hong Kong are opposed to mainland nations. The Centre for Communication and Public Opinion Survey surveyed 815 people in March. In the survey, 24% said they favored mainland nations. Among those interviewed, comedian and linguistics scholar Benjamin Au Yeung said it would be a shame if Hong Kong became part of the mainland. However, if the financial system in the city were stable, he would remain in the city.

In a recent interview with the Financial Times, Johnson revealed that he had opened a new path for the «biggest changes» to the British visa system. He is ready to extend a 12-month visa waiver to Hong Kong’s B.N. (O) passport holders, a move that will help nearly three million people gain British citizenship. While Johnson hinted that three million Hong Kong citizens could become British citizens, U.K. Immigration Minister Dominic Raab warned that the offer is far from clear and should be accompanied by a comprehensive plan.

While the fact sheet says that B.N. (O)s and passport holders have different statistics, Hong Kong’s BNO citizens will get British citizenship after living in the U.K. for at least five years or achieving settled status in the country. While there is still no concrete plan to give British citizenship to B.N. (O) holders, the fact sheet outlines that the Home Office is exploring ways to extend visa rights for B.N. (O) citizens in Hong Kong.

The Chinese government’s authoritarian leadership is cracking down on dual-passport-holding residents. The Mainland authorities will soon begin to strip people of their travel and economic privileges if they fail to renounce their second passports. The Hong Kong government is already targeting a large number of dual-passport-holders. Hong Kong has nearly 7 million residents. There are roughly 100,000 British citizens and eight5,000 Australians who hold foreign passports.

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Up to 20 percent of Legislative Council members retain foreign nationality.

As of the 2016 elections, up to 20 percent of the Legislative Council members of Hong Kong are Chinese citizens. The Basic Law guarantees that Hong Kong retains its own identity under the principle of ‘one country, two systems.’ Hong Kong’s institutions and independence remain threatened, and the Chinese leadership recognizes this. However, this new formula may not be enough to guarantee Hong Kong’s political autonomy.

Hong Kong’s ruling circles are increasingly aware of its political distinctiveness, both for symbolic reasons and perceptions in Taiwan and the U.S. Historically, the city’s residential landscape was relatively unplanned, with British and other nationalities living in the Peak and Mid-Levels, and more affluent residents in the lower terrain. Some grand garden houses are still a prominent part of Hong Kong’s architectural landscape. In contrast, the Chinese government is increasingly cautious about changing its political system without first reversing its policies.

While China has not ruled out the possibility of Legco members being included in the post-1997 Legislature, it has made it clear that it is committed to introducing a fully elected Legislative Council, with half of its members being directly elected. Beijing has said that the elections will uphold democratic principles but has yet to specify which parties or restrictive pledges will be allowed to nominate candidates.

The new law was crafted to avoid reversion to colonial control. In December 1989, the British government sent a representative to Beijing to reassure the Chinese authorities that they would not allow Hong Kong to be used as a base for anti-Chinese subversion. The Hong Kong administration responded by arresting pro-democracy activists and invoking authoritarian colonial public order ordinances.

Dual nationality is common in Hong Kong.

In recent years, Hong Kong has experienced political turmoil because of foreign intervention. The pro-establishment camp has resisted discussions on banning dual citizenship. But the issue of dual nationality is far from dead. Many Hong Kongers are dual citizens. But the question remains: how do you tell if you are a dual citizen? First, you have to identify which country you are from. Hong Kong has a large ex-pat population, most of whom are from countries with a high estimated number of citizens in the city. Many of these people have emigrated from Hong Kong to other countries and have cultural and social capital here.

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While dual nationality is common in Hong Kong, the mainland does not recognize it. As a result, local authorities may treat you as a Chinese national. Unlike British nationals, you cannot claim British citizenship without first naturalizing as a Chinese citizen. For this reason, it is essential to carry a copy of your renunciation of Chinese citizenship with you at all times. In addition, Hong Kong has recently stopped recognizing British National (Overseas) passports, which allowed Australians to visit the U.K. visa-free for up to six months.

In response to the growing number of cases of dual nationals, the Canadian foreign ministry has sent a message to the Hong Kong government. Canadians seeking consular assistance in Hong Kong should present themselves as Canadians. In addition, approximately 300,000 Hongkongers have a Canadian passport, which means consular officers are allowed to visit foreign nationals in prison. On the other hand, Chinese citizens are not permitted to be seen by consular officers.

British National (Overseas) passport

A British National (Overseas) passport is a particular type of passport issued to citizens of the United Kingdom who are not residents of the territory. Many countries do not accept this type of passport, although it is still widely used for travel purposes. Until 1990, the Immigration Department was responsible for collecting the details of British Nationals (Overseas) and issuing them B.N. (O) passports. The cover of a B.N. (O) passport is navy blue, and the key is machine-readable.

B.N. (O) passport holders are entitled to stay in the U.K. for six months without needing a visa. This privilege is also extended to regular Hong Kong passport holders who do not have BNO status. This type of visa also allows them to apply for limited leave to stay in the U.K., and they enjoy favorable immigration conditions compared to visitors. B.N. (O) passport holders are entitled to re-entry to the United Kingdom but are not allowed to any of the E.U.’s employment or establishment provisions.

The Chinese government will no longer recognize B.N. (O) passports. This change comes amid a dispute over citizenship, which has plagued the city for over 20 years. Britain and China have been at odds over whether to allow Hong Kong citizens a path to citizenship in the U.K. The Foreign Office said it was «not surprised» by the decision to de-recognize the British National (Overseas) passport.

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The British National (Overseas) passport is not transferable. It cannot be passed through jus sanguinis from parents to children. Children born to B.N. (O)s after 1 July 1997 would have Chinese nationality and be British Overseas citizens. These children can also be registered as British citizens. As long as both parents had British Dependent Territory Citizens with Hong Kong connections, their British National (Overseas) passports would be valid.

Reverse-return migration to Hong Kong

Reverse-return migration to Hong Kong is increasing, reflecting a shift in the socio-economic situation in the city. The Joint Declaration on Hong Kong, signed by China and the United Kingdom in 1984, triggered a wave of outmigration of Hong Kong residents. Over three hundred and eighty thousand Hong Kong residents immigrated to Canada in the early to mid-1980s, and a significant proportion returned once they had acquired Canadian citizenship. Until the late 2000s, this high transnational mobility of H.K. immigrants in Canada attracted considerable attention in migration studies. However, recent socio-economic developments in Hong Kong have resulted in a reverse-return migration among H.K. Canadians.

Technological developments in the destination country partly fueled the recent trend of reverse-return migration to Hong Kong. Chinese authorities reward Mainlanders who bring technology abroad, but these migrants often don’t get new international technology. Instead, they bring back technology that China has yet to adopt, which provides them with a competitive advantage in the domestic market. As such, the key to successful reverse migration is technology transfer.

Participants in the study were middle-class or upper-class. Most had acquired certification in the foreign language and worked in high-end industries to support their plans for emigration to Hong Kong. While all returned migrants with their families, most had household incomes in the top 25th percentile of Hong Kong society. In addition, nearly half had revenues of over HK$100,000.

Many of the returning emigrants emigrated to Hong Kong to live in their adopted home permanently. However, they are not acting according to their original plans. Some were even born in Hong Kong and later returned to a foreign country for work purposes. This is why they are often referred to as sojourners. The influx of returnees has raised several issues.

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